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, is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland.Today it is known for its ski center, hot spring spas, bresaola, cheeses (in particular Bitto, named after the river Bitto) and wines.
During the Thirty Years' War, the Valtellina was a theater of intense military and diplomatic struggle among France, the Habsburg powers and the local authorities.
At the end of the 19th century there was substantial migration out of the Valtellina for reasons of the prevailing economically depressed conditions of the region and for young men to avoid conscription.
Industrially, the area is famous as the home of the world's first mainline electrified railway.
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815 the Valtellina became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, which was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire.
In 1859 it came, together with Lombardy, to the Kingdom of Sardinia, and finally in 1861 it became part of the Kingdom of Italy.
In 1797 the growing power of the First French Republic created the Cisalpine republic in Northern Italy.
On 10 October 1797, the French supported a revolt in the Valtellina against the Graubünden (Grisons in French and English), and it joined the Cisalpine Republic.The electrification of the Valtellina line took place in 1902, using three-phase power at 3,600 V, with a maximum speed of 70 km/h.The system was designed by the brilliant Hungarian engineer Kálmán Kandó who was employed by main contractors the Budapest-based Ganz company.By January 1945, however, no firm decision to make a stand in the Valtellina had been taken.The Germans, represented by Ambassador Rudolf Rahn, were opposed to the idea.Although Livigno is on the northern side of the alpine watershed, it is considered part of Valtellina as it falls within the province of Sondrio. By the 5th century it was Christianized with around ten pieve (rural churches with a baptistery) under the Diocese of Como.